Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE): Instructions for Authors

Science's SAGE KE publishes original Perspectives, Reviews, Viewpoints, and Case Studies in an exclusively electronic format. All of these content types are indexed in MEDLINE, and we highlight the titles and authors in in Science. Such content is generally written by scientists, and new material is published weekly. This content should be written at a high scientific level, but should be understandable by a wide variety of researchers in the aging field; please avoid jargon, and explain any technical terms that someone from a different subspecialty might not understand. The SAGE KE editors encourage scientists writing Reviews, Perspectives, and Viewpoints to use interesting metaphors or colorful language. It need not be the usual restrictive academic review and could include the author�s personal spin on the particular area(s) of research and how the field is likely to play out in the future, including potential clinical applications.

SAGE KE Perspectives emphasize the opinions or viewpoints of their authors. More limited in scope than Reviews, they focus on recently published papers or on methods, books, policy matters, meetings, etc. Perspectives on recently published papers are written by scientists knowledgeable in the area of research covered in the paper, not by the author of the paper itself.

SAGE KE Reviews address timely topics of interest to scientists in the aging field. Unlike conventional reviews, they are updated by their authors as developments warrant (most likely once a year). Reviews should provide new insights as well as summarize the information currently available. The best Reviews reflect the unique viewpoint of the author and show how new findings alter current thinking about major issues in a particular field. SAGE KE Reviews can also bring together findings from various sub fields. Reviews are evaluated by peer review for scholarship, accuracy, clarity, and effectiveness of presentation.

Viewpoints are editorials or personal essays written by scientists. Editorials are articles in which the author expresses his/her opinion about a controversial topic of interest to researchers in the aging field. Essays are articles in which the author describes a personal story relevant to science (for example, "Why I Study Aging" or "My Circuitous Career Path").

Case Studies are articles about particular patients who suffer from age-related diseases and are written by physicians. These articles describe aspects of the diseases from the physician's and pathologist's points of view and put a human face on these devastating diseases.

Most Perspectives, Reviews, Viewpoints, and Case Studies are solicited by the editors, but we welcome your suggestions of potential topics and authors. If you have questions, please contact Heather McDonald.

For citing a SAGE KE article, please use the following format:

Author, Title. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. Year(issue number), document type and number (2004).

D. Holmes, S. Austad, Declining Immunity with Age in the Wild. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. 2004(21), pe22 (2004).

For citing a SAGE KE bulletin board entry or comment, please use the following format:

Author, Title of Entry. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. (Bulletin Board/Comment, date of posting), URL of the entry.

M. A. Smith, G. Perry, Pathology Is Not Necessarily Pathogenic. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. (Bulletin Board, 29 October 2004),;276.

Preparation of text for Science�s SAGE KE:

1. Please use the Times New Roman font for your review (except where you need a symbol, then use the Symbol font)

2. Please use the References format in the Instructions for Authors document (below).

3. For sending your manuscript by electronic mail, please send to Please DO NOT email figures, because they will bounce. See below for instructions on how to submit your figures and tables electronically.

4. For Reviews, it would help us if you suggest some possible reviewers and give us their contact info (email/phone). We contact the reviewers before sending the manuscript.

5. Graphics:

Next to torture, art persuades best.
--Ward Beecher

The bottom line:

For submitting your figures and tables electronically:

Use Fetch or another FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

1. Open application and enter Host:

2. The User name is: sage

3. The password is: solvent

6. Name the file using your last name, e.g., LaMarcoFig1.tiff

7. Use �Put file� to transfer your figures.

Preparation of figures: Science's art department is in a Macintosh environment. We use the following software packages: Freehand (version 7.0 or earlier), Illustrator (version 8.0 or earlier) and Photoshop (version 5.0 or earlier). We can also accept figures in the following formats (in descending order of preference): TIFF, PICT or PICT2 Mac-accessible postscript, GIF, and JPG. It is best to save charts and graphs as postscript, eps, or PICT.

Please do not embed your files in a word processing program, such as Word, because we need the original file that the document was created in. Also, we cannot accept Powerpoint files at all. Powerpoint does not have the filters needed to bring it successfully into the programs we use, and the data becomes distorted.

When you send a tiff file please aim to have at least a 300 dpi and a width of about a letterhead sheet of paper, 8 1/2 inches.

Files made in Illustrator 10 should be saved to Illustrator 9. Saving to version 9 from 10 is very easy:

File/save as/... in the drop down menu, select version 9

For queries related to figures and their submission contact Julie White at the Science Art Department:

More detailed instructions on preparation of figures and tables:


Figures will be presented in the text in a small (thumbnail) format that can be enlarged with a click of the left mouse button. Composite figures should be labeled A, B, C. Line drawings should be labeled on the ordinate and abscissa with the parameter or variable being measured, the units of measure, and the scale. Scales with large or small numbers should be presented as powers of 10. Definitions of symbols should usually appear in the figure legend and not in the figure. Simple symbols (circles, squares, triangles, and diamonds: solid or open) reduce well.

Avoid the use of light lines and screen shading. Instead, use black-and-white, hatched, and cross-hatched designs for emphasis. Use heavy lines or boxes for emphasizing or marking off areas of the figure

Lettering is in a sans serif font (Helvetica, Arial) for figures. Use boldface type for axis labels and for the labels A, B, C, in composite figures; use italic type only as it would be used in the text (for example, for variables and gene names). The first letter of each entry should be uppercase; otherwise, use uppercase letters as they would be used in the text (for example, for acronyms). Avoid wide variation in type size within a single figure.


Acceptable formats are Quicktime, MPEG, and Flash. Quicktime is preferred. (Download Quicktime from: Keep videos short and the display window small to minimize the file size of the video. Supply caption information with the videos. Edit longer sequences into several small pieces with captions specific to each video sequence.

Figure Legends should be double-spaced in numerical order on a separate page. No single legend should be longer than one page. Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure should match those used in the text. The figure title should be given as the first line of the legend.

Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. Each table should be generated on a separate page with its legend double-spaced above the table. The first sentence of the legend should be a brief descriptive title. Three horizontal lines are used in tables: at the top and bottom of the table and between the column headings and the table body. Vertical lines are not used between the columns.

Every vertical column should have a heading consisting of a title with the unit of measure in parentheses. Units should not change within a column. Centered headings of the body of the table can be used to break the entries into groups. (See the section on lettering for use of italic type and uppercase letters.)

Footnotes should contain information relevant to specific entries or parts of the table. The sequence of symbols for footnotes is: *,Y�,y�,�,II,�,#,**,Y�Y�,y�y�

More detailed information for preparation of your manuscript: * Symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms should be defined the first time they are used in the text.

* Units of measure should be given in SI units. If measurements were made in English units, give metric equivalents.

* References are numbered in the order in which they are cited, first through the text, then through the table and figure legends. List a reference only one time.

* Any references to unpublished data should be given a number in the text and placed, in correct sequence, in the References. The abbreviations for journal names are taken from the Bibliographic Guide for Editors and Authors (BGEA) or Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base (BIOSIS), a more recent publication. When abbreviating journal titles, follow the periodical title word abbreviations. When in doubt, provide the journal�s complete name. Spell out cities that are listed after a journal name: Acta Zool. (Stockholm) . Do not use op. cit., ibid., 3-m dashes, en dashes, or et al. (in place of the complete list of authors� names). For author names with Jr. or 2nd, etc. see example number 4 in the Journals section.

* Publisher�s names are given in shortened form. �Press� and the like are usually dropped, except Academic Press [�Academic� is an adjective], University Park Press, CRC Press, MIT Press, and Cambridge Univ. Press [for University presses, to distinguish them from the university itself]. Only one publisher�s location is needed. A few world-renowned cities (for example, Amsterdam, London, Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, Baltimore) can be listed without state or country; less well-known cities and those with names that could be confused take state abbreviations (Cambridge alone for the city in the U.K., but Cambridge, MA).

* Inclusive page numbers or chapter number must be given when specific articles are referred to within an edited volume.


Please use full citations in the following format, which includes the complete list of authors, the full titles, and the inclusive pagination:

For citing a SAGE KE article, please use the following format:

D. Holmes, S. Austad, Declining Immunity with Age in the Wild. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. 2004(21), pe22 (2004).


1. E. J. Neer, T. Kozasa, Sites for Ga binding on the G protein b subunit overlap with sites for regulation of phospholipase Cb and adenylyl cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 16265-16272 (1998).

2. D. J. Mangelsdorf, C. Thummel, M. Beato, P. Herrlich, G. Sch�tz, K. Umesono, B. Blumberg, P. Kastner, M. Mark, P. Chambon, R. M. Evans, The nuclear receptor superfamily: The second decade. Cell 83 , 835-839 (1995).

3. J. J. Tesmer, R. K. Sunahara, A. G. Gilman, S. R. Sprang, Crystal structure of the catalytic domains of adenylyl cyclase in a complex with Gs�GTPS. Science 278 , 1907-1916 (1997).

4. J. D. Brown, M. R. DiChiara, K. R. Anderson, M. A.Gimbrone, Jr., J. N. Topper, MEKK-1, a component of the stress (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathway, can selectively activate Smad2-mediated transcriptional activation in endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 274 , 8797-8805 (1999).

5. J. Burton, C. K. Goldman, P. Rao, M. Moos, T. A. Waldmann, Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 , 7329-7333 (1990).

6. A. Miyawaki, R. Tsien, Monitoring protein conformations and interactions by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mutants of green fluorescent protein. Methods Enzymol. (in press).

7. F. Watson, R. S. Kiernan, D. G. Deavall, A. Varro, R. Dimaline, Transcriptional activation of the rat vesicular monoamine transporter 2 promoter in gastric epithelial cells: Regulation by gastrin. J. Biol. Chem. Papers in Press, published 2000 as 10.1074/jbc.M006697200.

8. K. L. Clark, P. B. Larsen, X. Wang, C. Chang, Association of the Arabidopsis CTR1 Raf-like kinase with the ETR1 and ERS ethylene receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 , 5401-5406 (1998) [published erratum appears in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 9060 (1998)]. [style for published erratum]

9. E. K. Griffiths, J. M. Penninger, ADAP-ting TCR Signaling to Integrins. Science's STKE (2002),;2002/127/re3.

10. J. K. Andersen, J.Kumar, B. Srinivas, D. Kaur, M. Hsu, S. Rajagopalan, The Hunt for a Cure for Parkinson's Disease. Science's SAGE KE (3 October 2001),;2001/1/re1.

Science Express papers

� When published in Science Express , but not yet in print:

1. W. Jones, B. Smith, Location and function of DNA binding proteins. Science 20 December 2000 (10.4444/science.1054678).

� When published in Science Express and in print:

1. W. Jones, B. Smith, Location and function of DNA binding proteins. Science 252, 1056 (2001); published online 20 December 2000 (10.4444/science.1054678).

Technical reports

1. D. E. Shaw, Technical Report CUCS-29-82 (Columbia University, New York, 1982).

2. F. Press, A Report on the Computational Needs for Physics (National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, 1981). [unpublished or access by title]

3. Assessment of the Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Chemicals (WHO Technical Report Series No. 556, World Health Organization, 1974).


1. Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, city and state of meeting, inclusive dates of meeting and year (publisher, publisher's city and state, year).

2. Title of Symposium Published as a Book, sponsoring organization, city and state of meeting, inclusive dates and year (publisher, publisher�s city and state, year).

Paper presented at a meeting (not published)

1. M. Konishi, paper presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Anaheim, CA, 10 to 14 October 1984. [sponsoring organization should be mentioned if it is not part of the meeting name]

Theses and unpublished material

1. B. Smith, thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (1973).

2 J. A. Norton, unpublished material.


1. A. M. Lister, Fundamentals of Operating Systems (Springer-Verlag, New York, ed. 3, 1984). [third edition]

2. J. B. Carroll, Ed., Language, Thought and Reality, Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1956).

3. R. Davis and J. King, in Machine Intelligence, E. Acock and R. Michie, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), vol. 8, chap. 3.

4. D. Curtis, in Clinical Neurology of Development, B. Walters, Ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1983), pp. 60�73.

5. Principles and Procedures for Evaluating the Toxicity of Household Substances (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1977). [organization as author and publisher]

Science of Aging Knowledge Environment. ISSN 1539-6150